One of the world’s most well-known buildings, the Taj Mahal was constructed by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in reminiscence of his favourite spouse, Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1631. Its excellent proportions and beautiful craftsmanship have been described as “a vision, a dream, a poem, a wonder.” This elegant backyard-tomb, an image of the Islamic garden of paradise, value almost forty one million rupees and 1,100 lb (500 kg) of gold. About 20,000 employees labored for 12 years to finish it in 1643.
Mughal buildings, whether or not constructed of marble or crimson sandstone, assert their exalted, imperial status. The Mughal emperors have been great patrons of the humanities, literature, and architecture and their rule established a wealthy, pluralistic tradition, mixing the very best of Islamic and Hindu traditions. Their best contribution to architecture was the garden tomb, raised on a excessive plinth within the centre of a charbagh garden. Ornamental components, equivalent to perforated jalis (screens) – used extensively for privacy and ventilation – refined inlay work and cusped arches gave Mughal buildings an ethereal grace that offset their large size. Different options include chhatris (domed rooftop pavilions) that had been adapted from Rajput architecture, and minarets that gave symmetry to the buildings.
THE PARADISE GARDEN
The hallmark of Mughal panorama design, the paradise garden was introduced by Babur (1483-1530), the first Mughal emperor, who yearned for the great thing about Ferghana, his Central Asian homeland. Primarily based on Islamic geometric and metaphysical ideas of design, the charbagh was an enclosed backyard divided into 4 quarters by raised walkways, water channels, and sunken groves. Water, the source of all life, was the central component, and the intersecting channels met at a focus that contained a pavilion for the emperor, who was seen as a representative of God on Earth.
It’s widely believed that the Taj Mahal was designed to be an earthly replica of one of the houses of paradise. Its impeccable marble facing, embellished by an outstanding use of floor design, is a showcase for the refined aesthetic that reached its zenith throughout Shah Jahan’s reign (1627-1658). The Taj Mahal manifests the richness and wealth of Mughal art, as seen in architecture, garden design, painting, jewellry, calligraphy, and textiles. Ornamental components include ornamental jalis, carved panels of flowering plants and calligraphic panels, as well as floral motifs in pietra dura, a Florentine mosaic work technique said to have been imported by Emperor Jahangir.